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Glossary

Active learning – method of teaching that focuses the responsibility of learning on the learner

Geomorphology – study of landforms and the processes that affect them, both “natural” and anthropogenic

Hekla – one of the most active volcanoes in southern Iceland, having erupted over 20 times since the 9th c.  During the Middle Ages was referred to as the “Gateway to Hell”

Historical ecology – study of the long term relationships between people and the environment

Icelandic sagas – collections of stories describing events that took place in the 9th – 11th centuries involving Icelanders and their ancestors.  They are generally accepted to be a combination of history and myth.

Midden – archaeological term used to refer to a trash dump for domestic waste

Networked information economy – term developed by Yochai Benkler in The Wealth of Networks, described as a “system of production, distribution, and consumption of information goods characterized by decentralized individual action carried out through widely distributed, nonmarket means that do not depend on market strategies.”

Norse – term used to refer to people who speak the Old Norse language, especially those from Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Pedagogy – study, strategy, and/or process of teaching

Stratigraphy – in archaeology the study of sedimentary layers that accumulate over time

Tephra – ash produced by a volcanic eruption

Veiðivötn – dormant volcano in southern Iceland.  Last eruption was in the 15th c.

Viking Age – period of northern European history dating from AD 750 – 1050, when the Norse migrated, settled, raided, and traded across Europe and the North Atlantic